This timeline tracks major developments from the beginning of close Azerbaijan-Turkey Relations through the Natural gas and Energy Resources.
Azerbaijan, Turkey, Energy, Natural gas, Aliyev, Energy Resources
Azerbaijan-Turkey Relations: Natural gas and Energy Resources
In addition to military and political factors in interstate relations, the economy has an overarching importance in general. With the promise of “One nation, two states”, Turkey and Azerbaijan have been trying to strengthen their strategic relations since their establishment. (Aslanlı, 2018)
After Azerbaijan regained its independence, the balance policy that started with Heydar Aliyev continued in the period of Ilham Aliyev. However, some countries have a special place in Azerbaijan’s foreign policy. Russia, which is an active factor in the Nagorno-Karabakh region, has a special place in the sale of underground riches to the international market with the USA and Turkey, which has historical friendships. The Republic of Turkey has helped Azerbaijan to ensure its territorial integrity as an independent state and to be recognized in the international arena. (Yılmaz, 2010) Turkey was the first country to recognize the independence of Azerbaijan on November 9, 1991.
Since 1991, more than 200 agreements have been made between the two countries covering many issues. However, due to various reasons, most of these agreements could not become functional.
1992 The first diplomatic relations were established on January 14, 1992. In terms of the legal basis of economic relations, the Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement was signed in Ankara on November 1, 1992. (Resmi Gazete, 1993) With the agreement signed between Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey Süleyman Demirel and President of Azerbaijan Ebülfez Elçibey, joint investments in the field of industry, cooperation in petrochemistry, oil exploration, production and oil industry were targeted.(Aslanlı, 2018) On September 13, 1992, SOCAR, founded by Elçibey, started to work and laid the foundations of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. (Eravcı, 2019)
1993 Regarding which route the natural gas line will be built, Elçibey left it to Turkey’s will. The project was suspended after Elçibey left power in July of the same year. (Eravcı, 2019)
1994 Azerbaijan has started to use Caspian energy resources and its production and market has been created. During the visit of President of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev to Turkey on February 8-10, 1994, many documents were signed for the development of economic relations. With the “Agreement on the Development of Friendship and Multilateral Cooperation” and articles 11, 12, 13 and 14 on the economy, it was decided to “increase the trade volume to a level suitable for the potential resources of the countries, and to create a suitable environment for the development and implementation of joint capital investment projects”. (Resmi Gazete , 1994) It was approved in the same year by Azerbaijan, but in 1996 and 1997 by Turkey, and entered into force on January 1, 1998.(Aslanlı, 2018) With this agreement, it is aimed to transport Azerbaijani oil to Western markets via Turkey route. (Ekşi, 2009)
Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum Natural Gas Line
In accordance with the agreement signed in 1994, the first legal foundation was laid.
1997 The first meeting of the Joint Economic Commission on Economic and Commercial Relations between Turkey and Azerbaijan (the Joint Economic Commission-JEC), which is an important institution for bilateral economic relations, was held on February 25.
1999 As a result of the agreement signed by Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Turkey at the European Security and Cooperation Organization conference held in Istanbul, the name of the line was changed to “Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan” (BTC). (Eravcı, 2019)
2001 On March 29, the second meeting of JEC was held. Some tensions arose at this meeting. Compared to the agreements made with Iran and Russia, the negativities of the terms of this agreement were quite high. During the visit of President Ahmet N. Sezer to Baku on September 17, 2001, the issue came to the fore and tensions arose. (Aslanlı, 2018) “Intergovernmental Agreement” regarding the delivery of Azerbaijan Natural Gas to Turkey, as well as a 6.6 billion m³ natural gas import agreement was signed between BOTAŞ and SOCAR. (Eravcı, 2019) Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum Natural Gas Pipeline was established.2002
Heydar Aliyev, who came to Istanbul within the scope of economic cooperation, met with Turkish business people and held a meeting to invest in Azerbaijan. After the meeting, which included Sabancı, Eczacıbaşı and Koçyiğit, it was observed that investments were not made.. (Aslanlı, 2018) An agreement was signed between Azerbaijan and Georgia for the construction of the Tbilisi route of the BTC natural gas pipeline. (Bal, 2004)
2005 The third meeting of JEC was held between 12-14 April. In the name of long-term economic cooperation, it was decided that the Executive Plan would enter into force as soon as possible. Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline was opened on 25 May.(Najafaliyev, 2021)
2006 Azerbaijani oil was transported to Ceyhan port and exported to Italy, USA, Israel, France, England. (Najafaliyev, 2021)
2007 “Long-term Economic Cooperation Program between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan” was signed on 13 December. It was decided to be transported from Aktau port of Kazakhstan to Azerbaijan and delivered to the international market via BTC line.(Resmi Gazete, 2008) The first natural gas shipment was made over the BTE line.(Güzel, 2009)
2010 Pursuant to the agreement signed between Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan, it was decided to transport the oil of Turkmenistan via BTC. (Aydın, 2018)
2011 The first meeting of the High Level Strategic Cooperation Council was held on October 25 with the participation of the heads of the countries and the Ministers of Defense, and “The Sales of Natural Gas to the Republic of Turkey between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Transit Passage of Natural Gas from the Republic of Azerbaijan over the Territories of the Republic of Turkey and the Natural Gas in Turkey Agreement on the Development of the Exclusive Pipeline for Transport over the Territory of the Republic of Turkey” SİGNED. (Çelikpala & Veliyev, 2015)
2012 Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline Project (TANAP)
A Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline Project agreement was signed between Turkey and Azerbaijan with a total of 1850 km of mainline, 19 km of which will pass through the Sea of Marmara. It is envisaged to invest 7 billion dollars in TANAP, which was established by the partnership of Azerbaijan State Oil Company SOCAR and Turkey`s BOTAŞ and TPAO companies. (Aydın, 2018) The South Caucasus Pipeline Project (SCP) and TAP combine to form the Southern Natural Gas Corridor. “TANAP’s mission is to build and operate a safe and reliable natural gas pipeline of the highest quality, adhering to high health and safety, social and environmental standards.” (TANAP, 2021)
2013 Within the scope of Turkey-Azerbaijan-Georgia regional cooperation, the foreign ministers of the three countries signed a joint statement.(Aydın, 2018)
2014 The Turkey-Azerbaijan-Turkmenistan partnership was realized and it was aimed to increase the cooperation between the parties.(Aydın, 2018)
2016 The trade volume of Azerbaijan and Turkey has increased as a result of the projects, collaborations and councils, to two and a half billion dollar from two hundred dollar, between 1992-2016 years (Aslanlı, 2018)
2017 On September 14, specific to Heydar Aliyev, the Government of Azerbaijan signed a production sharing agreement with Azerbaijan State Oil Company (SOCAR) BP, Chevron, INPEX, Statoil, Exxon Mobil, TP, ITOCHU and ONGC Videsh in Azeri, Çıraklı and Güneşli deep water fields. The Agreement of the Century has been extended until 2050. (Azerbaycan Gazetesi , 2017)
2018 The Southern Gas Corridor was opened on 29 May. Thanks to this corridor, Georgia has earned income without spending due to its transit country location. On June 30, the first commercial gas was sent to Turkey via the Trans Anatolian Pipeline.. (Najafaliyev, 2021)
2019 The opening ceremony of the European pipeline of TANAP natural gas was held on 30 November. (Najafaliyev, 2021)
2021 Vagif Aliyev, SOCER’s Deputy Chairman of the Board of Turkey, said that he could carry out the works jointly with the Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO) for the 405 billion cubic meters of natural gas discovered by Turkey on the Black Sea coast. (Vatan Gazetesi, 2021)
Aslanlı, A. (2018). Türkiye-Azerbaycan Ekonomik İlişkileri. Yönetim ve Ekonomi: Celal Bayar Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 25(1), 15-27.
Aydın, U. (2018). AZERBAYCAN İLİŞKİLERİNİN SON ON YILI (2006-2016): KARDEŞLİKTEN STRATEJİK İŞBİRLİĞİNE UZANAN YOL. Avrasya Uluslararası Araştırmalar Dergisi, 6(13), 38-62. doi:10.33692/avrasyad.509957
Azerbaycan Gazetesi . (2017, 09 20).
Bal, İ. (2004). 21. yüzyılda Türk Dış Politikası. Ankara: NOBEL AKADEMİK YAYINCILIK.
Çelikpala, M., & Veliyev, C. (2015). Azerbaycan-Gürcistan-Türkiye: Bölgesel İşbirliğinin Başarı Örneği . İstanbul: Center for International and European Studies (CIES) Kadir Has University.
Ekşi, M. (2009). Türkiye-Azerbaycan İlişkileri: Söylemden Reelpolitiğe. Avrasya Etüdleri, 36(2), 95-112.
Eravcı, H. M. (2019). Sovyetler Sonrası Azerbaycan-Türkiye Arasındaki Enerji İşbirliği Çalışmaları ve Dış Politikadaki Etkisi. Ulisa: Uluslararası Çalışmalar Dergisi, 3(1), 37-48.
Güzel, M. (2009). Türkiye-Azerbaycan ilişkilerinde uyum (siyasi, enerji, ekonomik ve kültürel boyutu) Yüksek Lisans Tezi. GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ SOSYAL BİLİMLER ENSTİTÜSÜ ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER ANABİLİM DALI ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER BÖLÜMÜ : https://dspace.gazi.edu.tr/bitstream/handle/20.500.12602/175219/muslum_guzel_tez.pdf?sequence=1 adresinden alındı
Najafaliyev, T. (2021). Bağımsızlık Sonrası Azerbaycan’ın Enerji Politikası ve Türkiye Etkisi (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Siyaset Bilimi ve Kamu Yönetimi Anabilim Dalı,Konya: http://acikerisim.erbakan.edu.tr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/20.500.12452/7358/655405.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y adresinden alındı
Resmi Gazete . (1994, Mayıs 30). Dostluğun ve Çok yönlü İşbirliğinin Geliştirilmesine İlişkin Anlaşma. Sayı: 21945.
Resmi Gazete. (1993, Mayıs 11). Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ile Azerbaycan Cumhuriyeti Arasında İşbirliği ve Dayanışma Anlaşmasının Onaylanmasının Uygun Bulunduğuna İlişkin Kanun. Sayı: 21578.
Resmi Gazete. (2008, Mart 20). Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Hükümeti ile Kazakistan Cumhuriyeti Hükümeti Arasında Uzun Vadeli Ekonomik İşbirliği Programı. sayı 26822.
TANAP. (2021, 07 06). http://www.tanap.com/content/file/TANAP_WEB_201812.pdf adresinden alındı
Vatan Gazetesi. (2021, 07 06). http://www.gazetevatan.com/dogal-gaz-ile-ilgili-flas-gelisme-boyle-duyurdular-1396780-ekonomi/ adresinden alındı
Yılmaz, R. (2010). TÜRKİYE-AZERBAYCAN İLİŞKİLERİNDE SON DÖNEM. Bilge Strateji, 2(2), 23-41.
Field and Serial Number of the Report
International Affairs – IA1008-EN
Application Date: July 7, 2021
Application Approval Date: July 7, 2021
Date of Issue: September 2, 2021
Last Update: September 2, 2021
All of the images published in The FEAS Journal and TFJ Reports are used for non-commercial and educational purposes. Except of the “TFJ signed” ones, The FEAS Journal does not claim any ownership over the images. If any of the images posted here violates any copyright law, please contact us.
These documents were prepared by the The FEAS Journal Reports (TFJ Reports). Information in a TFJ Report should not be relied upon for purposes other than public understanding. TFJ Reports, as a work of the The FEAS Journal, are not subject to copyright protection. Any TFJ Report may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without permission from The FEAS Journal. However, as a TFJ Report may include copyrighted images or material from a third party, you may need to obtain the permission of the copyright holder if you wish to copy or otherwise use copyrighted material. If you have any copyright copyright claim about the information given in this report, please contact us immediately.
Contact us: firstname.lastname@example.org